Ever since the Democratic Party’s Joe Biden’s government came in America. That’s when he promised to emphasize climate-related research. From this, it was clear that from then on, more attention would be given to those American space missions that would be useful for research related to the problems of mankind and the earth. In this episode, NASA will launch four Earth Science Missions next year. The purpose of these missions will be to gain knowledge of basic climate systems and processes. Of these, the study of extreme storms, surface water and ocean and atmospheric dust will also be included.
Scientists are discussing these campaigns at the fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union 2021. It is worth noting that NASA’s system with many satellites is already working to monitor the Earth from space. Through this, high-quality data related to the environment of the earth is collected. NASA says that these four missions will increase the ability to monitor the changing Earth.
Separate campaigns for cyclones and dust
Out of these four missions, the TROPICS campaign will have six small satellites that will work to make better and faster measurements of tropical cyclones. At the same time, the EMIT campaign will collect information about the origin and composition of mineral dust on Earth through the Imaging Spectrometer installed on the International Space Station. This dust has an impact on the climate, ecosystem, air quality and human health.
Keep an eye on natural disasters and water sources
America’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)’s JPSS-2 will help scientists forecast extreme weather, which will include forecasts of floods, forest fires, volcanoes, etc. Apart from this, the SWOT campaign will observe the world’s oceans and assess their role in climate change. Along with this, monitoring will also be done on lakes, rivers and other surface waters.
What is the purpose of TROPICS?
TROPICS i.e. Time-Resolved Observation of Precipitation Structure and Storm Intensity with a Constellation of Small Sets aims at better monitoring of tropical cyclonic storms. In this, six satellites together will make microwave observations of the storm’s rain, temperature, and humidity every 50 minutes.
Scientists are hoping that these data will help them understand the factors that give the intensity of tropical storms as well as be helpful for weather forecasting models. In the TROPICS campaign, small satellite pairs will be placed in space by 31 July 2022 in two or three launches.
Study of mineral dust
In the atmosphere, particles of minerals from the air from the dry areas of the earth continue to spread around the world. These particles affect the energy of the rays coming from the sun. Due to which the temperature of the earth’s surface and the atmosphere is also affected. The Earth Surface Mineral Dust Source Investigation (EMIT) will gather information about where these dust form and their structures so that scientists can understand their effects. This mission will be for one year and it will be installed on the International Space Station.
The Joint Polar Satellite System, a joint mission by NOAA and NASA, will monitor ocean surface temperatures with information on accurate measurements of atmospheric temperature and humidity. Due to which many weather events can be forecast. At the same time, Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) will monitor their activities and processes over the entire surface water including the Earth’s oceans, lakes, rivers.