Monkeypox: Second case of monkeypox confirmed in Kerala

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It was informed on Monday of the second incidence of monkeypox in a 31-year-old male who landed in Kannur from Dubai on July 13. Health Minister Veena George reported that the patient, who has been admitted to the government medical college hospital in Kannur, is stable.

On July 14, a 35-year-old man who had just returned from the UAE was identified as the disease’s first patient. A high-level, multidisciplinary central team was dispatched to Kerala to work with local officials on putting public health measures into action. All 14 districts have received a notice, and support centres have been set up at each of the state’s four airports.

How extensive is the epidemic of monkeypox worldwide?

Monkeypox has been quickly spreading around the world since early May, mostly among homosexual and bisexual males who frequently exhibit vaginal and anal rashes that medical professionals can mistake for herpes or syphilis.

According to the WHO, there is now a global outbreak going on that is affecting several nations, including those in Europe, the Americas, Africa, the Western Pacific, and the Eastern Mediterranean. The rate of infection in 2022 has been greater than typical, even in those regions of Africa where instances had previously been documented — Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the Central African Republic.

According to Reuters, 1,469 of the 11,500 confirmed cases worldwide are in the US, while 1,856 are in the UK. Nearly 2,500 instances, all of which were in Spain, made up the majority.

Separately, Reuters reported that the European Commission had acquired around 54,000 more doses of a monkeypox vaccine created by the Danish biotech company Bavarian Nordic following an original supply agreement for 110,000 doses.

The majority of monkeypox cases are self-limiting, meaning they will go away on their own and have no negative long-term repercussions on the patient’s health. Even if they are infected, most kids and people with strong immune systems won’t get serious illnesses.

How is monkeypox transmitted?

Large respiratory droplets are believed to be the primary method of human-to-human transfer. As a result, prolonged intimate contact with an infected person is usually necessary for transmission to occur.

According to the Union Health Ministry, monkeypox can also spread by indirect contact with lesion material, such as through infected clothes or linen, as well as direct contact with bodily fluids or lesion material. Monkeypox, however, is largely a zoonotic disease, which means that it spreads from sick animals to people. The illness has primarily passed from animal to human in Africa, although the conditions needed for this would be extremely uncommon in India.

According to the Health Ministry, tiny mammals, such as rodents like rats and squirrels, and non-human primates like monkeys and apes, as well as during the processing of bush meat, can bite or scratch infected humans.

What are the clinical symptoms of monkeypox?

The variola virus, which causes smallpox, and the vaccinia virus, which was used in the smallpox vaccine, are also members of the genus orthopoxvirus, which also includes the virus that causes monkeypox. The symptoms of monkeypox are less severe than those of smallpox.

The duration of the symptoms is two to four weeks. According to the Health Ministry, patients may have one of five symptoms during the initial prodrome phase (0–5 days): fever, headache, muscular pains, tiredness, chills and/or sweats, and sore throat and cough.

The face and limbs exhibit skin rashes more visibly than the trunk, claims the Ministry. According to the Ministry, “Notably the genitalia might be affected and can be a diagnostic challenge in STD population.”

In the general population, the case fatality ratio of monkeypox has traditionally fluctuated from 0 to 11%; it has been greater in young children. According to the Health Ministry, the case mortality rate has recently ranged between 3 and 6 percent.

How is monkey pox treated?

Monkeypox has no known cure as of yet. Depending on the symptoms, the WHO suggests supportive therapy. Those who have been exposed are recommended to isolate right away.

The Ministry of Health’s recommendations for the supportive care of monkeypox state that skin rashes should be treated with a basic antiseptic and, in the event of significant lesions, covered with a light bandage. Warm saline gargles should be used to treat oral ulcers.

According to medical professionals, monkeypox is a highly understood illness that can be effectively treated using current therapeutic treatments. Dr Hemlata Arora, Senior Consultant, Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Nanavati Hospital, urged people not to worry and, more significantly, not to mix monkeypox with another typical viral sickness.

There is currently no widely approved vaccination for monkeypox.