La Nina effect: Finally, the monsoon has departed from India. Usually, by October 15, the monsoon returns from all over India, but this time it was late. Not only this, it is now being estimated that this year’s cold in India will also cause more chills among the people. The Indian Meteorological Department also says that this time, the cold will be more severe than in the last few years. This estimate is being made due to the changes in the weather in the far Pacific Ocean. Which will have an impact on the whole world. These changes are coming due to the effect of La Nina.
What is the meaning of the word La Nina?
La Nina is a Spanish word that means little girl. It is part of a complex process called the En Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle that occurs in the Pacific Ocean and affects climates worldwide. The second of this process is called El Nio (Spanish child), which has the exact opposite effect of La Nia.
Geography of the Pacific Ocean
The geography of the Pacific Ocean plays a vital role throughout this cycle. It extends from the Americas to Asia and Australia. ENSO brings about unusual changes in the water and air on the surface of the Pacific Ocean. It affects the patterns of precipitation, temperature, and air circulation all over the world. While La Nia is seen as a cooling effect of ENSO, El Nio is seen as a warming effect.
Cooling of the pacific ocean
Both effects lead to an adequate abnormality in the average surface temperatures of the Pacific Ocean. In La Nia, the wind blows west over the warm water surface of the Pacific Ocean. When there is movement in the warm water, the cold water comes to the surface. This causes the eastern Pacific to become more relaxed than usual.
On the other hand, in the year of the La Nina effect, the wind blows faster in winter, due to which the water near the equator and near it becomes colder than usual. For this reason, the temperature of the ocean changes by affecting the weather of the whole world. Monsoons with heavy rains in India, droughts in Peru and Ecuador, heavy floods in Australia, and high temperatures in the Indian and West Pacific Ocean are all due to La Nina.
What could happen this year
This time La Nina is active. In The Print report, AB Dimitri, Professor of Environmental Science, Jawaharlal University, said that its effect will not be in constant low temperatures in India but in the form of intermittent cold waves. The impact of La Nia and El Nio occur between 9 and 12 months. They recur randomly every two to seven years. El Nio has been seen to come more often than La Nia.
These events were also because of La Lina
Director-General of the Indian Meteorological Department Mrityunjay Mohapatra says that all this will be seen due to the weak La Nina conditions in the Pacific Ocean. American scientist and University of Maryland climate scientist Raghu Murtugude told Down to Earth that events like frost in Mahabaleshwar and cold in the hilly areas of Tamil Nadu are related to La Nina.
In India, La Nina has an effect on the winter season of the country. In this season, the winds blow from the north-east side of the land. Which are accompanied by southwest jets in the high atmosphere. But during El Nia, this jet is pushed to the south. There are more Western Disturbances than this, which bring rain and snowfall in Northwest India. But La Nia creates a system of low pressure in the north and south due to which air from Cyberia comes and cools further south.