Black holes can also make gold: All the elements present on Earth are not made here. To manufacture many heavy metals, it is necessary to create such conditions that are not possible to be on Earth. One reason for this is that the formation of heavy metals like gold, silver, thorium, uranium requires infinitely energetic conditions. Such situations can arise only from supernova explosions or collisions of neutron stars. But in new research, scientists have shown that such elements can also form in the rings just outside the newborn active black hole when swallowing dust and gas.
Conversion of the proton into a neutron
In these extreme environments, the rapid emission of particles such as neutrinos gives a chance to convert protons into neutrons. This leads to an increase in the number of neutrons and the formation of heavy elements or metals. Astronomers from the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research in Germany explained how his team studied it.
Use of computer simulation
Just explained, “In our study, we systematically investigated the rate of change of neutrons and protons in a large number of disk configurations through detailed computer simulations for the first time. We found that the disk is very rich in neutrons if certain conditions are maintained.
There were no heavy elements in the beginning
There were not many elements present in the universe just after the Big Bang event. Only after the formation of stars, the nuclear nuclei in their core start colliding with each other. Before that, hydrogen and helium were primarily present in the entire universe. From the nuclear fusion of stars, heavy elements from carbon to iron began to form in space. These elements spread in space after the death of the stars.
Difficulty in the formation of elements heavier than iron
But in the case of iron, there was a problem with this fusion. Most heavy stars did not have these fusion processes in excess of the energy needed to produce the heavier elements. Due to this, the temperature of the core started decreasing. The conditions of supernova began to arise in the dying stars.
Collision of supernova and neutron stars
Heavy elements could also be formed in this supernova explosion and the bursts of colliding neutron stars. These explosions are so energetic that the rapidly colliding energetic atoms capture up to each other’s neutrons. This is called the rapid neutron capture process or R-process. This has to happen so fast that even radioactive radiation does not have time, and before that, the neutrons are added to the nucleus.
Even in a black hole
Although it is not yet clear how many other situations like this are where the R process occurs, newborn black holes are a strong contender. Black holes are formed when two Newton stars merge. Their combined mass is enough to bring them into the category of black holes. Just and his colleagues tried to find out if this could happen.
The researchers observed the different conditions of black holes by running computer simulations and found that if the conditions were suitable, the R process nucleosynthesis could occur in these environments. In which the total weight of the disc will be a deciding factor. But it should not be more. Researchers hope that it will be possible to test them in the future.